22 July Monday

What are Complex Prepositions?

Dr. PK JayarajUpdated: Monday Nov 5, 2018

  W hat is the difference between a simple and complex preposition? Simple prepositions are one word prepositions, such as, in and to.  A complex preposition is a word group (such as “in line with”) that functions like a one-word preposition. Complex prepositions can be divided into two groups: two-word prepositions (compound prepositions) such as instead of and three-word prepositions (complex or phrasal prepositions) such as on account of.
     When do we use the compound preposition ‘according to’? According to means ‘as reported by’ or ‘as stated by’.  Example: According to John, Mary was late. When do we use instead of? It means as an alternative. Could I have a cup of tea instead of coffee? What is the meaning of ahead of? It means in front of. Antony is ahead of John in the race. What is the meaning of contrary to? It means counter to.  Contrary to expectations, the Euro fell in value. What does along with mean? It means at the same time as.  Do you want some pork along with the chicken?
   What is the difference between except for and save for? Save for means except something. Examples: Everyone came, save for Ashok who had to work.  Everyone was present, except for Mary. What is the meaning of further to? It means refer to an earlier letter. Further to your letter, I have spoken to Mr Brown. What is meaning of owing to?  Owing to means because of or on account of. Examples: There will be restrictions on the water supply owing to the prolonged drought. Don’t worry on account of me. Think about yourself.
  What is the meaning of the complex preposition in line with? It means in accordance with. The Company’s results are in line with the stock market’s expectations. What is the meaning of in lieu of ? It means instead of something? Can I pay Euro in lieu of dollars? What does in face of mean? It means despite. He reacts bravely in face of danger.
   Choose the most suitable preposition to fill in the blanks.    
1.................John, Mary was late. I believe John.
    a) According to   b) Further to  c) Forward of  d)out of 
2. Antony is..............John in the race. I think he’ll win. 
    a)aside from  b) ahead of   c) on board  d)further to 
3. Could I have a cup of tea..........the coffee?
     a) instead of  b) out of   c) up to  a)aside from
4................your behaviour, I think you were wrong. 
a)As per b) Up until c) As to  d)As for 
5....................expectations, the Euro fell in value 
      a)Next to b) In favour of c) Contrary to  d)As for
6. Do you want some pork...............the chicken? 
     a)along with   b) out of  c) thanks to  d)contrary to  
7. Don’t worry...............me. Think about yourself. 
a)apart from  b) on top of  c) on account of  d)along with  
8. Everyone came,.............Ashok who had to work. 
a)save for   b) away from  c) as for  d)on account of
9. Everyone was present,...........Mary. She stayed at home. 
a)in face of    b) out of    c) except for  d)away from  
10. ............your letter, I have spoken to Mr Brown. 
a)Forward of   b) Further to   c) Next to  d)except for
  11. He is.............the two opinions. He wants to compromise.
       a)in between   b)up to   c)instead of   d)further to
  12.He reacts bravely........danger
       a)up until    b)in face of  c)instead of  c)further to
  13.He was sitting ............me in the plane. 
        a)on board b) out of    c)instead of   d) forward of 
 14.I am not.............your idea. It won’t work.
    a)in favour of    b)thanks to c)in face of    d)away from 
15. The company’s results are...........the stock market’s expectations.
    a)away from  b)with reference to c)in face of   d)in line with
16. I don’t have any dollars. Can I pay Euro..........dollars?
     a)opposite to b) in lieu of c) in spite of  d)in face of 
17. There will be restrictions on the water supply.........the prolonged drought.
     a)according to   b)with respect to  c)with reference to  d)owing to
18. I don’t want it,............the price. Even if it’s free. 
      a)away from  b) prior to  c) regardless of   d)in face of
 19. I have another car.............this one. Both are red. 
a)aside from   b) out of   c) by means of  d)according to 
 20.I made a graph.............the meeting, so all was ready. 
       a) except for b) on top of  c) with respect to  d) preparatory to    
   
 Answers: 1)a, 2)b, 3)a, 4)c, 5)c, 6)a, 7)c, 8)a, 9)c, 10)b, 11)a, 12)b, 13)d, 14)a, 15)d, 16)b, 17)d, 18)c, 19)a, 20)d
 


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